# Glossary

abstract syntax tree (AST)
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accuracy (AST)
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aggregation
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alias
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alternative hypothesis
Amdahl's Law
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analysis of variance (ANOVA)
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automatic variable
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Bayes' Rule
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Benjamini-Hochberg *p* value correction
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Bernoulli distribution
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Bessel correction
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bin
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binomial distribution
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blob
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Bonferroni correction
Boolean
Relating to a variable or data type that can have either a logical value of true or false. Named for George Boole, a 19th century mathematician.
box-and-whisker plot
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build action
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build prerequisite
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build rule
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build target
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build tool
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Central Limit Theorem
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central moment
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character encoding
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Chebyshev's Inequality
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chi-square test
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Cliff's $$\delta$$
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Cohen's *d*
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Cohen's kappa coefficient
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comma-separated values (CSV)
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conditional probability
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confidence interval
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continuity correction
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convergence
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convolution
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correlation
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covariance
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covariance matrix
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cumulative distribution function (CDF)
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curve fitting
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data manifest
FIXME explain where data comes from.
data science
Statistics, but less rigorous and better paid.
dataframe
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de-anonymization
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degrees of freedom
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dependent variable
descriptive statistics
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docstring
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effect size
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escape character
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event
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expected value
explanatory variable
A variable whose value is an input to a statistical model rather than being predicted by it. Explanatory variables determine the values of response variables.
F measure
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F test
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false negative
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false positive
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fat arrow function
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filter
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Gamma distribution
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Gamma function
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geometric distribution
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Gini coefficient
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goal-question-metric (GQM)
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Greenhouse-Geisser correction
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gzip
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harmonic mean
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hero developer
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histogram
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independent variable
interquartile range (IQR)
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ISO date format
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jitter
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Kano scale
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key
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Kruskal-Wallis test
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learner persona
A brief description of an idealized learner that captures key demographic features of a lesson’s intended audience.
Likert scale
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linear regression
A modeling technique that assumes y = ax+b where y is a response variable and x is an explanatory variable.
linter
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Little's Law
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logistic regression
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long tail
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Lorenz curve
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magic number
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main driver
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Mann-Whitney U test
FIXME Also known as a Wilcoxon rank sum test test.
Martha's Rules
A simple set of guidelines for consensus-based decision making.
Mauchly's test for sphericity
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maximum likelihood estimation
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mean
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median
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method chaining
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method of moments
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minification
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multiple linear regression
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n-gram analysis
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negative binomial distribution
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negative binomial regression
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Noble's Rules
A simple set of guidelines for organizing a small data analysis project.
normal distribution
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Not Available (NA)
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Not a Number (NaN)
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nuisance factor
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null
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null hypothesis
one-sided distribution
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one-sided test
outlier
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overdispersion
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*p* hacking
*p* value
pair programming
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pattern rule
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Pearson correlation coefficient
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percentile
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personal identifying information (PID)
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phony target
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Poisson distribution
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pooled sample variance
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population
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population moment
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power law distribution
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pre-registration
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precision
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principal component analysis (PCA)
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probability density function (PDF)
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probability mass function (PMF)
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property
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quartile
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queueing theory
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random number generator (RNG)
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rank correlation
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raster graphics
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recall (AST)
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regular expression
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relational database
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reproducible research
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response variable
A variable whose value depends on (and hopefully can be predicted from) the value of an explanatory variable.
right censoring
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sample
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sample moment
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sample variance
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Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)
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seed
Shapiro-Wilk test
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sigmoidal curve
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slice
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sliding window
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smoothing
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Spearman's rank correlation
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SQL
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standard deviation
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standard normal distribution
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standard uniform distribution
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state machine
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statistic
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statistical model
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*t* distribution
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*t* test
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tar
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Taschuk's Rules
A simple set of guidelines for writing robust data analysis scripts.
test-driven development
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throttle
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tidy data
Tabular data that satisfies four conditions: 1. Each column contains one statistical variable (i.e., one property that was measured or observed).
1. Each different observation is in a different row. 3. There is one table for each set of observations. 4. If there are multiple tables, each table has a column containing a unique key so that related data can be linked.
two-sided test
uniform distribution
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utilization
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variance
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vector graphics
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violin plot
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Visitor pattern
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weighting
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wheel
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Wilcoxon rank sum test
Another name for the Mann-Whitney U test.
Wilcoxon signed rank test
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YAML
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Z test
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Zipf's Law
An empirical rule stating that frequency is inversely proportional to rank.
Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution
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